Current Analysis
Service Provider Infrastructure
Current Analysis Intelligence Reports are timely assessments of industry events such as a product or service launches, acquisitions, major corporate strategy adjustments, or changes in technology direction. Subscription clients can access Intelligence Reports on our CurrentCOMPETE Intelligence Portal. They get real-time analysis of breaking industry news and events, as well as intelligence reports on companies, products and markets. Click here for more information.
INTELLIGENCE REPORT SUMMARIES
Service Provider Infrastructure
Date  Report
May 19
Recent industry reports point to increasing consumer uptake of subscription VoD/OTT services, in both North America and Europe. What can pay-TV operators do to remain viable in the brave new video world?

May 19
With a definitive agreement with China Huaxin to form Nokia Shanghai Bell (NSB), Nokia can now take full advantage of a key asset from the ALU acquisition to provide a key differentiator in an important market, both in sales support and R&D.

May 17
SpiderCloud’s new “frequency-flexible” LTE radio unit for its enterprise RAN solution can change spectrum bands via software, encouraging enterprises to deploy it themselves. But businesses may need even more encouragement.

May 16
Managed services engagements made a comeback from a slow finish to 2016 as vendors demonstrated wide-ranging support for a variety of network technologies. Vendors announced contract renewals as the result of value-added services.

May 16
Alongside the launch of its Netcracker 12 product suite, Netcracker announced expanded services to alleviate the complexity of digital transformation. The effectiveness of its consultative approach might be hampered by few ties to the network.

May 15
The new Netcracker 12 platform adds cloud and analytics capabilities and SDN controller support to boost operator enterprise digital initiatives like IoT and SaaS offerings. But, the ‘multispeed’ approach may be daunting to operators.

May 11
ADTRAN demonstrated 212 MHz G.fast and coordinated Dynamic Time Allocation (cDTA) at this week’s G.fast Summit in Paris. These advancements highlight steady progress on the G.fast front, but ADTRAN is neither alone, nor a leader, in G.fast R&D.

May 11
Verizon outbids AT&T and gets the prize of Straight Path spectrum to fuel its 5G aspirations for a cool $3.1 billion.

May 11
At this week’s G.fast Summit, ASSIA CEO John Cioffi presented the Terabit DSL concept, achieved with waveguide modes enabling 100 GHz frequencies. While clearly in the “science project” stage, it highlights copper’s longer-than-expected lifespan.

May 11
Core Dynamic Networks plans to partner with silicon suppliers to embed its OpenEPC in the RAN, enabling a small cell to become a complete portable mobile network. The move helps enable alternative ARM-based private mobile network use cases.

May 10
In June 2016, Nokia announced that Starman would be the first European operator to deliver 10 Gbps services. Today, Starman officially launched the 10G service, albeit as part of a relatively slow-paced, five-year plan for its fiber build-out.

May 10
TM Forum Live! 2017 is in Nice, France next week, and with the nature of telco networks and IT undergoing radical change, the ‘Live!’ suffix is more appropriate than ever. GlobalData will be there and will host a post-show webinar.

May 10
Aviat Networks added 1024 QAM and 60/80-MHz-wide channels to its IRU 600 radio. Though it has plans to add the capability to other products this year, this move should only impact the North American market, where the IRU 600 is sold.

May 10
Ericsson launches its Dynamic Orchestration solution aimed at end-to-end orchestration, especially in SDN/NFV environments, but signals the alliance with Cisco is unable to co-develop portfolio innovation.

May 5
Calix, always aiming for more access market traction, continues its aggressive SDA portfolio expansion with the new Routing Protocol module (RPm), enabling implementation of Layer 3 intelligence and routing capabilities in fixed access networks.

Apr 28
Over the past 20 years, CSPs have been prone to overhyping network performance and turning technological advancements into marketing-speak. AT&T’s introduction of “5G Evolution” indicates that the marketing wars around “5G” are about to begin.

Apr 27
What follows is a detailed assessment of the conference proceedings as they relate to the service enablement ecosystem market, Huawei’s evolving strategies, and the impact of announcements made at the conference.

Apr 27
Cisco services in support of telecom operators have traditionally been difficult to pin down, as the vendor engages with many verticals. Cisco clarified its strategy in this respect, but left some questions regarding capabilities and partnerships.

Apr 27
Huawei’s new eLTE SmartCampus solution – aimed at ports, mining and manufacturing – combines the performance of 4.5G with IoT, video surveillance and more, doing the important work of urging enterprises not to wait for 5G.

Apr 26
KEYMILE, which several years ago exited the telecom market to focus on key verticals, has reversed course. While its hiatus from the telco space may have hurt its chances of winning new business, KEYMILE gives operators another viable FTTx choice.

Apr 26
Huawei showed slow but steady growth in its CSP services business in 2016, as well as strong enterprise momentum. But the company still needs to ramp up its focus on automation and clarify inconsistent services messaging.

Apr 25
With Comcast and other cable MSOs touting Gigabit broadband, Verizon has unveiled Fios Gigabit Connection to counter the growing Gigabit threat from cable rivals. But Fios Gigabit service, like cable offerings, suffers from limited availability.

Apr 25
The 2017 Huawei Analyst Summit showcased its willingness to invest in high-potential technologies. While video is now a top strategic priority, will Huawei’s telco-centric IPTV focus lead to missed opportunities in the cable operator market?

Apr 25
“ALL CLOUD” and “Openness” themes dominated this year’s Huawei’s Analyst Summit. While neither theme was new, the scope of the company’s ambitions has dramatically increased; rivals need to take note and carriers need to consider their options.

Apr 24
At Huawei’s 2017 Analyst Summit, no big new RAN announcements could top last year’s debut of its CloudRAN vision. Meanwhile, the work it’s doing to capture new revenue opportunities illustrates the many challenges its RAN strategy entails.

Apr 24
HAS2017: Huawei consolidated its multiple cloud-based solutions under its Network Cloud Engine framework, this helps minimize fragmentation, addresses multi-domain end-to-end solutions and could counter challengers pushing their point solutions.

Apr 21
‘Continuous, relentless improvement’ might as well be Huawei’s motto, as every year at its Analyst Summit, Huawei refines and evolves both its strategic and tactical messaging. This year, video was front and center on Huawei’s summit agenda.

Apr 21
The AT&T Fiber footprint has been expanded again, adding eight new U.S. metros, eventually serving 75. While cable operators are ramping DOCSIS 3.1 to deliver Gigabit access, AT&T Fiber’s expanding presence will make life more difficult for MSOs.

Apr 21
While fixed access was not as high-profile as at previous events, during its 2017 Analyst Summit, Huawei did unveil several new gems in its fixed networking portfolio, most notably new combo NG-PON cards and 25G PON.

Apr 19
Huawei’s SmartCare SOC solution was selected by Telefonica to deliver real-time CEM to mobile services in three countries, validating its PSPU vision, but it now faces the harder task of driving the carrier’s operations transformation program.

Apr 17
HAS2017: Huawei’s Network Cloud Engine (NCE) tackles data center-centric network challenges, leverages SDN and massive 100G connectivity, and brings cloud benefits to carrier core networks.

Apr 14
Huawei’s Global Analyst Summit 2017 outlined the company’s “ALL CLOUD” strategic vision. Going beyond most, if not all of its peers, Huawei’s execution ability will likely help the vendor pull it off, but whether carriers will bite is far from clear.

Apr 7
Zeitgeist Content: While YouTube TV debuts with hard-to-overlook content and service footprint limitations, Verizon completely revamps and expands its go90 OTT service, and AT&T rewards its Unlimited Plus (wireless) customers with free HBO.

Apr 6
At Mobile World Congress 2017, the topic of small cells was generally overshadowed by others such as 5G. In addition to the small-cell trends we identified from the show, a handful of individual vendor moves are worth taking note of as well.

Apr 6
With so much talk about 5G, massive MIMO and cloud RAN, many Mobile World Congress attendees may have overlooked some of the small-cell activity at the show. We examine both notable trends and individual vendor moves in this two-part analysis.

Mar 31
The 2017 TV Connect event in London saw Huawei and ZTE debut new video service delivery solutions, leveraging CDN technology aimed at accelerating high-resolution (4K) deployments, but both vendors are playing catch up with the competition.

Mar 31
After acquiring Brite:Bill, Pontis, and Vindicia, Amdocs decided to operate the three as independent concerns. In Brite:Bill’s case, Amdocs has gained new market inroads, but must spur integration of Brite:Bill innovations into its portfolio.

Mar 29
Ericsson announced a long overdue portfolio realignment and simplified management structure to counter operating challenges. But many questions remain regarding additional portfolio rationalization, investment focus and strategic partnerships.

Mar 29
OFC 2017: This year’s conference brought new product announcements and optical innovations as always, but there was a stronger emphasis on providing on-demand services that leverage SDN for control and greater automation.

Mar 28
Packet Design joins NEC/Netcracker’s Ecosystem 2.0 program, combining Packet Design’s analytics with NEC/Netcracker’s Transport SDN solutions to spur deployment of SDN applications, but operators are increasingly building their own solutions.

Mar 23
Cisco completes its $3.7 billion acquisition of AppDynamics, providing a boost in the application monitoring capabilities of its digital transformation portfolio, but it now needs to take advantage of operator demand for application visibility.

Mar 23
IoT was, not surprisingly, big news at MWC. For IT vendors/systems integrators, the focus on IoT was largely buried into larger messaging around digital transformation; security, edge computing and ecosystem-building were the major IoT themes.

Mar 22
Oracle unveiled a new survey identifying operator challenges in using cloud and NFV technologies to improve the customer experience, but Oracle falls short in differentiating its cloud solutions and bolstering related vertical portfolio assets.

Mar 22
IoT was, not surprisingly, big news at MWC. For incumbent telecom vendors, the focus was less on new technologies like NB-IoT and Cat-M1, and more on broadening platforms and making a more direct pitch to target verticals than ever before.

Mar 21
IoT was, not surprisingly, big news at MWC. While every constituency had their own messaging priorities, silicon vendors were out in force to talk about automotive use cases, capabilities beyond connectivity and almost anything other than NB-IoT.

Mar 20
IoT was, not surprisingly, big news at MWC. While every constituency had their own messaging priorities, LPWAN network providers showed up to talk about network coverage and use cases. At least, that was the case for those who showed up.

Mar 20
Nokia’s new org changes and management shuffle reflect the new strategic direction announced in November 2016. The moves make sense on paper, but are surprising at a time when Nokia appeared to have put its post-merger ducks in a row.

Mar 20
Infinera’s Instant Network, launched at OFC 2017, broadens the scope of its instant bandwidth by adding bandwidth licensing pools, moveable licenses, and automated capacity engineering with license pooling differentiating from rival offerings.

Mar 20
Nokia is going after optical demarcation and DCI markets with a single platform to better compete in a more dynamic optical market. The move adds a significant competitor to the CPE and web-scale DCI segments.

Mar 17
ZTESoft launched its POWER strategy aimed at meeting strategic operator digital transformation demands. However the strategy is undercut by a confusing acronym and puts ZTESoft behind Huawei in marketing digital transformation solutions.

Mar 17
ADTRAN surpassed the 10 million vectoring ports shipped benchmark, becoming the third vendor to join this club. But, can ADTRAN leverage its vectoring success in driving adoption of its solutions in the emerging G.fast and FTTP markets?

Mar 17
At Mobile World Congress this month, the two topics mentioned most among microwave backhaul vendors were, not surprisingly, 5G and, somewhat surprisingly, E-band, which has been around for a long time but has recently seen a growth spurt.

Mar 16
The Open Network Automation Platform (ONAP) project hit the industry just before the start of Mobile World Congress. Reactions were generally positive from operators and VNF vendors, but MANO vendors just want to get on with the job.

Mar 16
At MWC17, telecom and IT hardware, software and services vendors focused less on “bells and whistles” and more on building the plumbing that will underpin emerging network architectures.

Mar 10
It has been a year since Nokia announced its AVA platform. While the introduction of more services leveraging the platform is a positive, the nature of cognitive platforms suggests the real benefit will be the additional data sources it gains.

Mar 9
At Mobile World Congress 2017, we expected 5G to be a major RAN topic, and it was. But in terms of commercial products, the three biggest RAN topics at the show were fixed wireless access, massive MIMO and cloud RAN.

Mar 7
HughesNet has launched its Gen5 satellite, capable of delivering 25 Mbps connections nationwide in the U.S., providing rural customers and other underserved consumers a potential broadband lifeline.

Mar 7
MWC17 saw the realization of a fully virtualized core network capable of supporting VoLTE. Nevertheless, while AI is making it even smarter for 5G, some major architectural foundations remain opaque.

Mar 3
EXFO acquires Ontology, boosting its service assurance and analytics portfolio with Ontology’s network topology discovery and service-chain mapping apps, but virtual network adoption barriers persist.

Mar 2
ADTRAN has expanded its software-defined access proposition to address impending 5G network buildout opportunities, with its new fixed access network sharing (FANS) concept a potential differentiator.

Mar 1
Netronome’s Agilio CX Platform was chosen to fuel multiple NFV infrastructure solutions from leading OEMs, including Ericsson, Juniper and Nokia, delivering sixfold more output per server, per dollar spent to service next-generation applications.

Feb 27
Nokia is showcasing a range of new RAN solutions at MWC. But ranking high among the vendor’s priorities is its massive MIMO and fixed-wireless access activities and what they mean for Nokia’s credibility in 5G.

Feb 24
Zeitgeist Content: With the lines between linear broadcast pay-TV and OTT blurring, operators are seeking out the best paths forward. For cable, telco and OTT providers, the end goals are the same: customer retention and revenue/margin protection.

Feb 24
With Mobile World Congress (MWC) 2017 only days away, it’s fair to consider any recent vendor news as a part of their MWC messaging strategy. If so, Affirmed’s IoT solution upgrade suggests we’ll be hearing more about the enterprise this year.

Feb 24
Ciena’s Waveserver Ai brings higher capacity, power efficiency and a server-like operational model to data center interconnect solutions, so operators can offer competitive high-speed, high-capacity services, but competitors are closing the gap.

Feb 23
Where Brocade acquired Ruckus for $1.2B last year, the sale of Ruckus (and Brocade’s ICX switch business) for $800M to ARRIS suggests a good deal. It’s also a deal that takes ARRIS out of its cable comfort zone and into new (enterprise) territory.

Feb 23
Possibly working on the premise that ‘it’s not bragging if it’s true,’ Calix has asserted another world first: symmetric Gigabit broadband via new G.fast kit. What’s also true is that hyperbole drives headlines, while customers drive revenues.

Feb 23
HPE expands its alliance with Red Hat, adding support for Red Hat OpenStack Platform and Red Hat Ceph in HPE NFV System 1.4 to accelerate operator digital transformation, but faces organizational barriers in spurring operator digital services.

Feb 23
Nokia’s new ‘anyhaul’ portfolio aims to win big in the emerging 5G anyhaul market with mobile transport solutions built upon its stable of mobile, microwave, IP, optical and fixed access technologies. The solution could be ahead of the market.

Feb 23
Nokia’s newly released Cloud SBC is fully virtualized, but then so are many of its “cloud-ready” competitors. Virtualized SBC architectures and media plane technology and economics are debated, but the market and Nokia need operator proof points.

Feb 22
Affirmed expands its virtualized IoT platform by adding NB-IoT support, but will need to rely on close partner Tech Mahindra to figure out how to drive IoT innovation by combining virtual network elements with analytics and enterprise IT systems.

Feb 22
Ericsson unveiled a slew of new radio access offerings in advance of Mobile World Congress, including radios supporting massive MIMO and new fronthaul technology. In a major 5G push, deployment ease and efficiency remain important emphases.

Feb 17
Subex previewed its digital transformation portfolio for Mobile World Congress 2017, including advanced analytics and IoT security solutions, but the announcement also pointed out the company’s challenges in fulfilling operator digital priorities.

Feb 16
Ericsson’s 5G Core System is capable of inter-carrier “federated network slicing”. Despite a lack of detail, it sets a new confidence-building 5G network benchmark for Ericsson; but until standards stabilize it could also be a “one-off”.

Feb 16
Voice over LTE and NFV represent the most complex integration challenges carriers have ever needed to negotiate. Challenges provide opportunities; systems integrators are in prime position to get a Tier 2/Tier 3 foothold now and more in the future.

Feb 15
After years of working together, Metaswitch closed in on longtime partner OpenCloud for its VoLTE application server. The combination looks promising, but Metaswitch must ensure its home base is not neglected in favor of demanding mobile prospects.

Feb 15
Nokia is incorporating support for low-latency, high-bandwidth mobile traffic into its NG-PON solutions, including its 7360 OLT series and several ONTs, aiming to win a sizeable portion of the high-potential and still-pending 5G ‘any-haul’ market.

Feb 13
Nokia will acquire Comptel for $370 million to expand its operator software portfolio and channels, especially for catalog-driven service orchestration, but faces integration and telco operations hurdles.

Feb 10
Nokia announced its worldwide IoT network grid as a service, targeting telecom operators and enterprise customers; access to its cloud packet core and global command centers for enterprise customers could serve as a valuable differentiator.

Feb 10
ip.access’s new Viper2020 allows unified management of a range of products – small cells, location-based services, neutral host radios and Internet of Things nodes. But the market demand for such combinations is unclear.

Feb 8
What’s the connection between AT&T’s work to open source ECOMP and its 2020 network function virtualization goals? The need to lean on a wide array of NFV suppliers and still be able to automate, orchestrate and manage all their functions.

Feb 6
Preparation activities in advance of 5G are ramping up as vendors and operators collaborate to define use cases. Additionally, market conditions have developed new options for services vendors with enterprise ambitions.

Feb 2
Nokia’s Velocix CDN Accelerates Sky’s VoD VeloNokia has garnered its first nationwide CDN deployment, with Sky UK leveraging Nokia’s Velocix platform to deliver VoD services to Sky’s broadband and satellite TV customers. But can Nokia carry its Velocix velocity into more operator accounts?city

Feb 2
ECI’s LightCARE application monitors network health to help preempt failures, ensure network reliability, and make maintenance recommendations to help increase user QoE; however, achieving true maintenance function automation may be challenging.

Feb 2
Nokia expanded its IMPACT IoT platform, adding enhanced security and pre-integrated applications targeting connected car, smart city and security/surveillance. Now it needs to take a proactive, services-led approach to help drive IoT momentum.

Feb 1
Nokia’s new 7705 SAR-Hm helps utilities modernize smart grid networks. The new router adds LTE and WiFi connectivity and enables automation to better manage grid devices, but organizational resistance could tend to slow implementation.

Jan 27
Cisco debuted its Infinite Video Platform Labs, and THX is developing a QoE streaming certification program with Conviva. Both video quality optimization solutions highlight the industry drive for improving the end-user viewing experience.

Jan 26
Ciena expanded the Blue Planet orchestration portfolio with internally developed, standalone network analytics capability. The endgame is autonomous carrier network automation, but first Ciena’s analytics needs proving beyond its native orbit.

Jan 24
RAN vendors’ 5G stories include big plans to penetrate enterprise verticals. But, RAN vendors lingering in the lull between mobile access spending waves aren’t waiting for 5G to win the enterprise.

Jan 24
Apart from operator buy-in to AT&T’s ECOMP, the end of 2016 saw vendors start to share the fruits of hard-won MANO templating experience. Suddenly, becoming “open” is looking like more like a competitive differentiator than ever before.

Jan 20
Zeitgeist Content: As the pay-TV world becomes increasingly non-linear, consumers are still very interested in live TV, evidenced by the rise in OTA TV penetration, the stunning success of DirecTV Now, and Hulu’s pending live TV service package.

Jan 19
Mediacom has proclaimed it now offers Gigabit access to ~1 million households in the Hawkeye state. While Iowa is home to several Tier 2 and Tier 3 operators already offering Gigabit services, Mediacom’s Gigasphere service is available statewide.

Jan 18
The Sonus SBC 5400 emulates some aspects of virtualized SBC (vSBC) flexibility, but on a purpose-built 2U platform. However, with vSBCs abounding and its overlap with Sonus’ existing SBC 5210, the company needs to make a stronger case for the 5400.

Jan 17
PacketFabric launched a new Ethernet packet transport services platform to deliver connectivity services to 11 healthcare markets in North America. The new single vendor SDN-based network is based on Juniper QFX10000 switches and software.

Jan 17
Infinera addresses growing cloud-scale subsea traffic demands with new platforms and spectrum management tools; with traffic projected to grow at 40% through 2025, new solutions are needed to deal with all the ‘elephants’ (100G flows).

Jan 13
The network core tends to get overlooked when talking about 5G. Carriers that have struggled to get even IMS implemented are now faced with yet more mountains to climb. NFV will help, but ‘NFV on steroids’ is needed to make the 5G core work.

Jan 9
Extending Ericsson’s partnership with Cisco to include a greater role for Cisco’s WLAN business is good, if overdue, news, but still light on product-level integration and non-committal in areas such as LTE/WLAN aggregation (LWA).

Dec 30 2016
Huawei co-founded the ECC with the goal of establishing broad industry cooperation on digital transformation platform standards. However, the ECC might have the opposite effect – more fragmentation – and could be viewed as China-centric.

Dec 22 2016
Vendors appear to be taking CSP demands to establish NFV interoperability across multivendor infrastructures seriously to drive commercial adoption. The big four Tier 1s are on board, but now others need to commit, sign up and actively engage.

Dec 22 2016
ZTE’s investment in Turkish integrator Netas shows ZTE will pursue ‘One Belt, One Road’ infrastructure opportunities. The initiative could signal a larger intention by ZTE to expand into new geographies and new verticals.

Dec 21 2016
Huawei touted several enhancements to its RAN portfolio in late 2016 in connection with the Mobile Broadband Forum event in Tokyo. The most important ones furthered the ‘CloudRAN’ vision presented by the vendor earlier this year.

Dec 20 2016
Acquiring former Mavenir Systems and Ranzure, Xura is aiming for an end-to-end virtualized 5G network. But with Xura, Mavenir and Mitel all having checkered acquisition histories, it remains to be seen if this new combination will work.

Dec 20 2016
Mitel will divest its mobile division to focus on unified communications/collaboration and free it from the unique challenges of the service provider market. But has the former Mavenir solution lost its window of opportunity?

Dec 19 2016
Nokia’s purchase of BDA startup Deepfield aligns with its focus on proactive cloud network management and security, and enhances Nokia’s cable operator proposition. Nokia and its peers must continue to seek out analytics innovation.

Dec 14 2016
Nokia updated its mobile services vision and portfolio in December. While evolution and innovation at the RAN remains a clear priority, its end-to-end approach encompasses dramatic changes to the core, an enterprise focus and services everywhere.

Dec 9 2016
Operators and vendors alike see virtual voice over LTE (vVoLTE) as a poster child for NFV. But, some pre-integrated vendor solutions, while making life easier for a carrier today, could raise vendor lock-in problems tomorrow.

Dec 7 2016
Cisco’s Cloud-Scale Networking drives the transition of central offices to data centers delivering automation and simplified service creation, using SDN, EVPN and segment routing technologies to stitch together a multivendor IP infrastructure.

Dec 6 2016
Nokia’s CloudBand open templating system aims to accelerate multivendor VNF lifecycle management. The system validates Nokia’s product strategy and VNF onboarding experience, but some operators may still favor carrier-led open MANO initiatives.

Dec 5 2016
Rising complexity provided substantial growth in managed service and vertical market engagements. As vertical markets increasingly look to telecom vendors for expertise with large-scale networks, is this the new normal?

Dec 2 2016
ADVA’s SmartWAN platform helps service providers offer virtual SD-WAN services and tap into VNFs from leading suppliers to deliver expanded high-value services; market confusion and the lack of market maturity may stall deployments.

Dec 1 2016
Altice USA has declared that it will skip DOCSIS 3.1 and transition its current HFC access networks to FTTH. Seemingly a groundbreaking move, on closer inspection, the HFC-to-fiber roadmap may not be as comprehensive, or fast, as touted.

Dec 1 2016
Ericsson announced Accelerated Network Build services, leveraging elements of automation, remote delivery, and cloud-based tools. The package is a differentiator in the near term that could force competitors with similar tools to follow.

Nov 29 2016
AT&T’s OTT streaming service debut, led by the DIRECTV NOW flagship, is a game-changing move on the pay-TV/video chessboard. While lacking some key content and functionality, DIRECTV NOW represents the strongest threat to cable TV since Netflix.

Nov 28 2016
Facing growing competition from a number of LPWA technologies, operators and traditional equipment vendors are deploying Cat-NB1 and Cat-M1. Each technology has its own optimal use cases, but true performance characteristics are not yet clear.


Top




All materials Copyright 1997-2017 Current Analysis, Inc. Reproduction or distribution prohibited without express written consent. Full Copyright Information
All materials Copyright 1997-2017 Current Analysis, Inc. Reproduction prohibited without express written consent. Current Analysis logos are trademarks of Current Analysis, Inc. The information and opinions contained herein have been based on information obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but such accuracy cannot be guaranteed. All views and analysis expressed are the opinions of Current Analysis and all opinions expressed are subject to change without notice. Current Analysis does not make any financial or legal recommendations associated with any of its services, information, or analysis and reserves the right to change its opinions, analysis, and recommendations at any time based on new information or revised analysis.

Current Analysis, Inc.
179 South Street, Boston, MA 02111, United States
Tel: 877-787-8947
Fax: +1 (703) 404-9300

Current Analysis, Inc.
2 rue Troyon, 92316 Sevres Cedex, Paris, France
Tel: +33 (1) 41 14 83 17

http://www.currentanalysis.com